Inguzanyo zihabwa abanyeshuri zikomeje kugorana kwishyurwa kuko hari abo amakuru y’aho baherereye atamenyekana(Harateganywa iki ku binangiye kwishyura?)

Hashize imyaka itandatu Banki y’u Rwanda Itsura Amajyambere (BRD) ihawe inshingano zo gukurikirana ibirebana n’inguzanyo zihabwa abanyeshuri biga mu mashuri makuru na kaminuza bya leta.

Ibi byakozwe mu rwego rwo kunoza imikorere y’iyi nguzanyo yakundaga gutinda cyane bigateza ingaruka zikomeye abanyeshuri rimwe na rimwe biga ari yo bacungiyeho.

Ubusanzwe umunyeshuri wabonye amanota meza mu bizamini bisoza amashuri yisumbuye, asaba kwiga muri Kaminuza yo mu Rwanda bitewe n’ibyo ashaka kwiga ndetse n’amanota yabonye agahabwa buruse.

Amafaranga afatwa nk’inguzanyo ni ay’ikiguzi cy’uburezi na ho ayo abanyeshuri bahabwa abafasha mu mibereho azwi nka buruse ntabwo yishyurwa.

Guhabwa inguzanyo bifasha umunyeshuri gukomeza amasomo ye yazabona akazi agatangira gukora yishyura kugira ngo na bagenzi be basigaye inyuma bazabashe gufashwa muri ubwo buryo.

Mu 2016 nibwo BRD yahawe inshingano zo gutanga inguzanyo ku banyeshuri babonye buruse ya Leta ndetse amafaranga abafasha mu buzima bw’ishuri akanyuzwa muri iyi banki.

Uretse kuba byaragoranaga ku banyeshuri bigatwara igihe kirekire batarabona amafaranga yo kubafasha, abarangije kwiga bafite akazi ntibagaragaza ubushake bwo kwishyura nk’uko bisabwa.

Ibyo byose byahawe BRD kugira ngo ikomeze kubikurikira no kunoza imikorere yabyo ngo bizatange umusaruro ugaragara.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umuyobozi ushinzwe ishami ry’Uburezi muri BRD, Wilson Rurangwa, yagaragaje ko hari intambwe imaze guterwa mu kwishyura inguzanyo zahawe abanyeshuri mu bihe bitandukanye nubwo hakigaragaramo imbogamizi.

Yagarutse kuri gahunda zitandukanye zirimo n’ingamba zafatiwe abanyeshuri barangiza ntibagire ubushake bwo kwishyura kandi barabonye akazi ndetse n’ibigo bitungwa agatoki ku kutamenyekanisha amakuru ku bakozi babyo.

Mu makuru yari ahari ubwo BRD yahabwaga inshingano zo gukurikirana gahunda yo gutanga inguzanyo no kugaruza iyatanzwe, byavugwaga ko hari akazi ko kugaruza agera kuri miliyari 68 Frw zahawe abanyeshuri kuva mu 1980 kugera mu 2015 kuko hari hamaze kugaruzwa miliyari 12 Frw.

Kuri ibi ariko yagaragaje ko kugeza uyu munsi nubwo iyo mibare yatangazwaga bitarasobanuka neza, ingano y’amafaranga yatanzwe mbere y’uko iyi banki ihabwa izi nshingano bitewe n’uburyo bwakoreshwaga mu kubika amakuru.

Yavuze ko hari gukorwa isuzuma ryimbitse rigamije kumenya neza ingano nyirizina y’amafaranga yatanzwe muri ibyo bihe, ayagarujwe n’umubare nyawo w’abayahawe.

Kuva muri 2016 BRD yahabwa gucunga inguzanyo z’abanyeshuri izimaze gutangwa zingana iki? Ni angahe amaze kugaruzwa?

Kugeza muri Nzeri 2021, hamaze gutangwa miliyari zisaga 215 Frw ku banyeshuri biga mu Rwanda no mu mahanga ariko aya mafaranga harimo inguzanyo n’amafaranga ya buruse.

Abanyeshyuri bahawe inguzanyo kuva 2016 bakabona akazi nyuma yo kwiga bakaba baratangiye no kwishyura ni 2.835, hakaba hamaze kugaruzwa amafaranga angana na miliyari 16 Frw guhera 2016.

Ni ibihe byuho bigaragara mu kwishyura inguzanyo ku banyeshuri?

Harimo abakoresha batubahiriza inshingano ngo bamenyekanishe abakozi bashya n’abasazwe bakora kugira ngo batangire bishyure inguzanyo bahawe na Leta yo kwiga amashuri makuru. Hari kandi abanyeshuri babona akazi cyangwa uburyo bwo kwishyura ariko ntibabimenyeshe abakoresha babo cyangwa ntibaze kwimenyekanishya kugira ngo batangire kwishyura.

Abanyeshuri barangiza kwiga bakabona akazi hanze y’igihugu bikaba bitoroshye kumenya aho baherereye kugira ngo batangire kwishura inguzanyo yo kwiga ariko turi gushaka kunoza imikoranire na Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ndetse na Diaspora Nyarwanda uburyo twakorana kugira ngo abanyeshuri barangije babashe kwishyura inguzanyo bahawe. Ikindi kandi hari n’abarangiza kwiga ntibahite babona akazi kugira ngo batangire kwishyura.

Abanyeshuri bahawe inguzanyo yo kwiga basoje amasomo bakabona akazi mubamenya mute?

Inshingano zacu ni ugukurikirana abanyeshuri bose barangije kwiga bakaba barabonye uburyo bwo kwishyura. Bumwe mu buryo tubamenya ni ugufatanya n’Ikigo cy’Imisoro n’Amahoro (RRA) na Minisiteri y’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo (MIFOTRA) ariko tunabamenyesha inshingano bafite zo kwishyura inguzanyo bahawe.

Dukora ubugenzuzi mu bigo tukareba uko bubahiriza inshingano zo kumenyekanisha ubwishyu bw’abakozi babo no kumenya ibyuho byaba birimo kugira ngo tunoze imikoranire myiza n’abakoresha.

Dufite kandi uburyo buhoraho bwo kwibutsa no kumyesha ababa bataratangira kwishyura kubakangurira gutangira kubahiriza ibisabwa, kugira ngo batangire kwishyura. Dukoresha ubutumwa bugufi (SMS) no kubageraho hamwe no kubinyuza mu binyamakuru.

Iyo bigaragaye ko hari abanyeshuri babonye akazi ntibagire ubushake bwo kwishyura hakorwa iki?

BRD buri gihe iha abakoresha ifishi yo kumenyekanisha amakuru ajyanye n’abakozi bigiye ku nguzanyo ya Leta hanyuma buri mukozi agasabwa gutanga amakuru byagaragara ko yabonye inguzanyo yo kwiga, agasabwa guhita atangira kwishyura.

Iyo bigaragaye ko hari abatitabiriye kwishyura kandi bafite akazi, icyo gihe tubereka inshigano zabo zo kwishyura kandi ziri no mu itegeko Nº 44/2015 ryo ku wa 14/09/2015 rigena uko inguzanyo y’ishuri igomba kwishyurwa hanyuma tukanabereka ibihano bigomba kwiyongera ku nguzanyo yabo.

Iyo batubahirije igihe bahawe cyo gutangira kwishyura habaho guca ibihano umukoresha n’umukozi nk’uko biteganywa n’itegeko

Mubona abataritabira kwishyura babiterwa n’iki?

Kuba hari abanyeshuri barangije bataratangira kwishyura bituruka ku bakoresha bataritabira igikorwa cyo kumyekanisha abakozi batishyura inguzanyo. Ikindi ni ubushake buke kuri bamwe mu bakoresha ndetse n’abakozi bize bakoresheje inguzanyo ya Leta ariko inshingano yacu ni uguhozaho tubakangurira inshigano zabo.

Kuba abanyeshuri barangiza ntibabone akazi bigira ngaruka ki kuri bagenzi babo biga ku nguzanyo ya Leta?

Birumvikana ko bituma ubushobozi bw’ikigega bwo kwishyurira abanyeshuri mu gihe kizaza buhungabana ndetse n’amahirwe ku banyeshuri akagenda aba make kuko iyo ubushobozi buhari inguzanyo ishobora kugera kuri benshi.

Ingamba zihari zo kugaruza atarishyurwa ni izihe cyane ko akiri menshi?

Kuri ubu twatangiye gukoresha ikoranabuganga kandi tuzajya duhora turinoza ku buryo abakoresha mu gihe kiri imbere bazaba bafite uburyo bwo kumenyekanisha amafaranga yishyuwe badahagurutse ngo bajye kwishyura kuri banki.

Abanyeshuri barangije kwiga bakaba bafite ubushobozi bwo kwishyura na bo bazaba bashobora kureba amakuru yerekeye ideni bafite n’uburyo buhari bwo guhita batangira kwishyura. Habayeho kuvugura itegeko rigenga imyishyurize y’inguzanyo n’ibihano bikarishye kuri abo bose batitabira gahunda yo kwishyura rikaba riri hafi gusohoka.

Gukoresha uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga umukoresha n’umukozi bakazabasha gutanga amakuru ajyanye n’inguzanyo batarinze guhamagara cyangwa kuza kuri Banki.

Turateganya gushyiraho uburyo bwinshi bworohereza ushaka kwishyura inguzanyo wese burimo gukoresha Mobile Money, Online banking, USSD code n’ibindi. Hari ugukorana n’izindi nzego za Leta kugira ngo abo twabuze dushobore kubageraho twifashishije amakuru y’ibanze twakura muri ‘système’ zitandukanye.

Ikindi ni ugukorana neza n’abakoresha bose kugira ngo bazage batanga amakuru yose mu gihe cyose babonye umukozi mushya.

Mu bikorwa byose dukora Minisiteri y’Uburezi n’Inama y’Igihugu y’Amashuri Makuru na Kaminuza (HEC) ni ibigo bituba hafi kugira ngo tunoze ingamba zose kandi tukaba tubashimira imikoranire myiza difitanye.

Umuntu abwirwa n’iki ko umwenda yamaze kuwishyura?

Ubusanzwe itegeko rigena ko umukozi wahawe inguzanyo yo kwiga yishyura nibura 8% by’umushahara mbumbe bigakorwa n’umukoresha we. Mbere y’uko akata tumugaragaragariza umwenda buri mukozi agomba kuzishyura ariko abakoresha benshi ntabwo babyitaho ahubwo bo bakomeza gukata gusa.

Hari igihe ubara ugasanga yarayakase kandi yaranarengeje. Icyo gihe iyo byabayeho bisaba uwishyuriwe amafaranga arenga kugana BRD tukabireba twasanga koko ari uko byagenze tukayasubiza ariko ni umwitozo ugoranye cyane. Iyi ni yo mpamvu dusaba ko abakoresha babigira ibyabo cyane nubwo turi gukora uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga buzadufasha ku buryo umukoresha nakata umukozi yararengeje kwishyura kumukata bitazakunda.

Ubu turi kubaka ikoranabuhanga rishobora kuzafasha buri wese kubasha kwinjira muri konti ye ku buryo ushobora kuzajya uyinjiramo ugahita ubona amafaranga umaze kwishyura ndetse no kubona amakuru ajyanye na konti yawe ku buryo wabona incamake y’ibikorerwa kuri konti yawe.

Kugeza ubu ariko iyo uwahawe inguzanyo yatangiye kuyishyura hakoreshejwe uburyo bwo kuvana amafaranga ku mushahara hanyuma akaza guhagarara ku kazi atararangiza kwishyura, umukoresha ahita abimenyesha ikigo cy‘imari akoresheje inyandiko.

Inkuru ya Igihe.com

Comments

comments